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CPR Algorithm  
Glasgow Coma Scale  
Obstetric Notation  
HELLP Syndrome  
Apgar Scoring System  
Normal Vital Signs In Children  
Normal Hemodynamic Values  
Common Central Pressure Values  
Common Formulas  
ECG Changes  
Normal ABG Values  
How Much Oxygen Is In The Tank?  
Math Conversions  
Ideal Body Weight and Body Mass Index  
Alcohol Levels  
Degrees of Burns  

 

CPR Algorithm, as outlined by the American Heart Association: Back to Top
       
  1.   Establish unresponsiveness
  2.   Phone 911, or a code, and get AED (automated external defibrillator)
  3.   Open airway
  4.   Check for breathing (look, listen, feel); if victim is breathing, place in recovery position; if not breathing, give 2 breaths at 1 second/breath, then rescue breathing 1 breath every 5-6 seconds. Abdominal thrusts for foreign body airway obstruction.
  5.   Pulse checks (carotid). Continue rescue breathing if pulse present. If pulseless, begin chest compressions.
  6.   Compressions: at lower half of sternum, between nipples. Approximately 100/minute, depth of 1½ to 2 inches.
  7.   Cycle: 30 compressions and 2 breaths, for both one and two rescuers.
  8.   Defibrillation: Using an AED, check rhythm. If shockable, give 1 shock and resume CPR for 5 cycles. If not shockable, resume CPR.
You can find much of the same info in mursing made incredibly easy magazine and in nursing cliffnotes.

Glasgow Coma Scale: Back to Top
 
The Glasgow Coma Scale is a neurological tool that evaluates three responses- verbal, sensory, and motor. Patients' responses are measured and points are assigned based on these responses.
 
The three tests are as follows:
 
 
Best eye response: (4 possible points)
4 -   Opens eyes spontaneously
3 -   Opens eyes to speech
2 -   Opens eyes to pain
1 -   Does not open eyes
 
 
Best verbal response: (5 possible points)
5 -   Patient is oriented (appropriately answers questions about time, place & person)
4 -   Patient is confused (responds to questions but with confusion, disorientation)
3 -   Patient using inappropriate words (no conversation, random words)
2 -   Patient making incomprehensible sounds (including moans)
1 -   None
 
 
Best motor response: (6 grades)
6 -   Follows commands
5 -   Purposeful movements with pain (localizes pain)
4 -   Withdraws from pain (pulls away from pain)
3 -   Flexion in response to pain (decorticate response)
2 -   Extension in response to pain (decerebrate reponse)
1 -   No motor response
 
The final score is known as the GCS (Glasgow Coma Score), and is as follows:
    GCS of 8 or less = severe coma
    GCS of 9 to 12 = moderate coma
    GCS of 13 or greater = mild coma
    A score of 15 is a fully awake person

Obstetric Notation: Back to Top
       
  G3 P2112 G = gravida P = para
   
  Gravida means the total number of pregnancies a woman has had (3)
   
  Para has detailed information about the pregnancies:
      2 = 2 live births
      1 = 1 preterm birth
      1 = 1 abortion or miscarriage
      2 = 2 living children

 

HELLP Syndrome: Back to Top
       
  Life-threatening complication seen in the later state of pregnancy. Characterized by:
   
  H   Hemolytic anemia
  EL   Elevated liver enzymes
  LP   Low platelet count

 

The Apgar score for neonates: Back to Top
 
Measured at one and five minutes of life, it gives a value between 0 and 10 to 5 physiologic variables.
     
0
 
1
 
2
  Heart Rate  
absent
 
< 100 bpm
 
> 100bmp
  Breathing  
absent
 
irregular, shallow
 
good, crying
  Reflexes  
absent
 
grimace
 
cough, sneeze
  Muscle tone flexion  
flaccid
 
good tone
 
spontaneous
  Color  
blue, pale
 
extremities blue
 
entirely pink

 

Normal Vital Signs In Children: Back to Top
 
Age (yrs)
 
HR
 
RR
 
SBP/DBP
< 1
 
120 - 160
 
30 - 60
 
60 - 95 / 35 - 69
1 - 3
 
90 - 140
 
24 - 40
 
95 - 105 / 50 - 65
3 - 5
 
75 - 110
 
18 - 30
 
95 - 110 / 50 - 65
6 - 12
 
75 - 100
 
18 - 30
 
90 - 110 / 57 - 71
12 - 16
 
60 - 90
 
12 - 16
 
112 - 130 / 60 - 80

 

 
Normal Hemodynamic Values: Back to Top
     
  Cardiac output (CO) 5 - 6 L/min
  Cardiac index (CI) 2.8 - 4.2 L/min/m2
  Heart rate (HR) 60 - 90 beats/minutes
  Stroke volume (SV) 60 - 90 ml/beat
  Stroke index (SI) 40 - 65 ml/beat/m2
  Systemic vascular resistance (SVR) 900 - 1400 dvn-s/cm5
  Pulm vascular resistance (PVR) 150 - 250 dvn-s/cm5

 

 
Common Central Pressure Values: Back to Top
     
  Location Range (mm Hg)
  CVP 1 - 10
  RV 15 - 30 / 0 - 8
  PAS/D 15 - 30 / 5 - 15
  MPAP 10 - 20
  PAOP 5 - 15
  LVEDP 4 - 12
  ICP 10 - 20

 

 
Common Formulas: Back to Top
   
  MAP = [(SBP) + 2(DBP)] divided by 3
  CO = O2 absorbed per minute by lungs/arteriovenous O2 difference
  CI = CO/BSA
  SV = CO/HR x 1000
  SI = SV/BSA
  SVR = BP - CVP/CO x 80
  PulmVR = [PAP - PAOP] divided by CO; then multiply by 80
  CPP (coronary perfusion pressure) = DBP - LVEDP

 

 
ECG Changes: Back to Top
   
  Anterior Wall:
    Q wave and ST elevator in V1 - V6
  Inferior Wall:
    Q wave and ST elevation in II, III, and AVF
  Lateral Wall:
    Q waves in I, AVL, V5 - V6
  Posterior Wall:
    Larger R wave and St depression in V1 - V2
  Right ventricle:
    V4R, V1 - V5

 

 
Normal ABG Values: Back to Top
 
 
 
Sea Level
 
Denver (5280 ft elev)
 
pH
 
7.35 - 7.45
 
no change
 
PaCO2
 
35 - 45 mm Hg
 
34 - 38 mm Hg
 
PaO2
 
80 - 97 mm Hg
 
65 - 75 mm Hg
 
HCO3
 
22 - 26 mEq/L
 
no change
 
SaO2
 
> 98%
 
92 - 94 %
 
Base excess
 
0 mEq
 
no change

 

 
How Much Oxygen Is In The Tank?: Back to Top
 
  A full E cylinder of oxygen will contain 625 liters of oxygen and have a pressure of 2000 psi. The volume correlates linearly with the pressure. If the tank reads 1000 psi, there will be 312 liters of oxygen left in the tank. If you are running the oxygen at 3L/min, then the oxygen will last approximately 104 minutes, or an hour and 4 minutes.

 

 
Math Conversions: Back to Top
   
  % to mg
    A 1% solution is equivalent to 1 gram of solute in 100ml of solution. So 1 gram (1000 mg) in 100 ml, or 10 mg/ml. An easy way to remember this: to derive mg/ml from a % solution, move the decimal point one place over to the right. In other words, 1% solution would be 1.0 %; in mg/ml, it’s 10 mg/ml.
   
  Lbs to kg
    Example #1 - 150 lbs.
      Divide by 2 = 75. Subtract the first digit from the quotient, or 75-7. = 68kg.
    Example #2 - 200 lbs.
      Divide by 2 = 100. Subtract the first two digits from the quotient, or 100 - 10 = 90 kg.
     
    Or, to convert from lbs to kg, multiply lbs by 0.4536
   
  Centimeters to inches
    Multiply centimeters by 0.39
   
  Inches to centimeters
    Multiply inches by 2.54
   
  Fahrenheit/Celsius
    F = (C x 9/5) + 32
    C = 5/9 x (F - 32)

 

 
Ideal Body Weght And Body Mass Index: Back to Top
 
  Ideal Body Weight (Broca index):
    Height (cm) minus 100 = ideal weight in kg for males
    Height (cm) minus 105 = ideal weight in kg for females
 
  Ideal Body Mass index:
   
  BMI = weight (kg) / height (m2)
    BMI of 22 - 28 ideal body weight
    BMI of 28 - 35 obesity
    BMI > 35 morbid obesity

 

 
Alcohol Levels: Back to Top
 
  Plasma level of: 25 mg/dl Impaired cognition and coordination
    > 100 mg/dl Autonomic / cerebellar dysfunction
    < 500 mg/dl Respiratory depression and death

 

 
Degrees of Burns: Back to Top
 
  First degree: Involves the skin surface (the epidermis); pain, redness, swelling
     
  Second degree: Involves the epidermis and the dermis; redness, swelling, pain, blisters, involves hair follicles and sweat glands
     
  Third degree: Involves epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis; white or charred skin, coagulated vessels below ski surface; involves extensive scarring
     
  Inhalation injury: from heat, toxins, and/or smoke inhalation; upper airway edema is the earliest seen consequence.

 

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